Coal Age

JAN-FEB 2017

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38 January-February 2017 health & safety continued Next Steps As the industry works to improve miners' situational awareness, it is imperative that miners fully understand the meaning of the information provided, how it can be used on a more frequent basis, and the value of empowering miners to use this information to reduce risk. With the intro- duction of a new technology, the industry needs to: • Determine what information is necessary; • Evaluate the effectiveness and design of the technology; • Increase the availability and adoption of the technology; • Promote the health and safety bene- fits gained by the technology; and • Develop training and interventions that support the use of the technology. Technology integration is a gradual process as can be seen by the differences outlined in relation to gas, dust and loca- tion information. The technology itself first needs to mature to fully determine the "what," as currently is the case with proximity detection systems. Is the right information incorporated into the right format to mitigate risk? With prevalence comes the "when," as exemplified by the data offered by the CPDM. Having dust information available in real time offers benefits that were not previously possible, but continued communication and train- ing efforts are still necessary to solidify miners' understanding. Finally, the "who" may be the greatest challenge to technol- ogy integration, while maximizing the health and safety benefits. Continued re- search will help to optimize the availabil- ity of this information to assist miners in reducing risk. Jennica Bellanca is a bio/mechanical engineer for NIOSH in the Pittsburgh Min- ing Research Division (PMRD). She can be reached at Brianna Eiter is a research behavioral scientist and Tim Orr is a computer engineer also with NIOSH PMRD. Disclaimer The findings and conclusions in this man- uscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of NIOSH. Mention of company names or products does not constitute endorsement by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. References • Blackley, DJ; Halldin, CN; and Laney, AS (2014). Resurgence of a Debilita- ting and Entirely Preventable Respira- tory Disease Among Working Coal Miners. American Journal of Respira- tory and Critical Care Medicine, 190(6), 708-709. • DuCarme, JP; Carr, JL; and Jobes, CC (2015). Proximity Detection with Selec- tive Machine Shutdown. In print pro- ceedings of the 144 th Annual Society for Mining, Metallurgy, & Exploration Conference held in Boulder, Colorado (pp. 15-083). • Endsley, MR and Garland, DJ (2000). The Oretical Underpinnings of Situation Awareness: A Critical Review. Situation Awareness Analysis and Measure- ment, 3(32). • Epstein, ML; Lazarus, AD; Calvano, TB; Matthews, KA; Hendel, RA; Epstein, BB; and Brosvic, GM (2002). Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique Pro- motes Learning and Corrects Inaccu- rate First responses. The Psychological Record, 52(2), 187-201. • Haas, EJ and Cecala, AB (2015). Beyond Assessment: Helmet-CAM Technology Influencing Dust Exposure Awareness and Response. Rock Products, Novem- ber, 28-29. • Haas, EJ and Rost, KA (2015). Integrating Technology: Learning From Mine Worker Perceptions of Proximity De- tection Systems. In print proceedings of the 144th Annual Society for Min- ing, Metallurgy, & Exploration Confer- ence (pp. 15-18). • Haas, EJ; Willmer, D; and Meadows, JJ (2016). Using CPDM Dust Data. Coal Age, 121(2), 40-41. • Jansson, J and Gustafsson, F (2008). A Framework and Automotive Applica- tion of Collision Avoidance Decision Making. Automatica, 44(9), 2347-2351. • Mine Safety and Health Admin- istration (2016). Coal Mine Fatalgrams and Investigation Reports. http:// • Mine Safety and Health Ad- ministration (2015a). Proximity Detec- tion Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Final Rule. Federal Register Volume 80, number 2187. pp. 2187- 2203. 30 CFR 75.1732. • Mine Safety and Health Admin- istration (2015b). Proximity Detection Systems for Mobile Machines in Un- derground Mines. Notice of Proposed Rule Making. Federal Register Volume 80, Number 53070. pp 53070-53086. • Mine Safety and Health Administration (2015c). Methane detectors approved under part 22. TECHSUPP/acc/lists/22methne.pdf. • Mine Safety and Health Admin- istration (2014). Lowering Miners' Expo- sure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, In- cluding Continuous Personal Dust Mon- itors. Final Rule. Federal Register Vol- ume 79, Number 84. pp 24814-24994. • Mine Safety and Health Administration (2006). Multigas detectors. Final Rule. Federal Register Volume 71, Number 236. pp. 71430-71455. 30 CFR 75.1714-7. • Peters, RH; Vaught, C; Hall, EE; and Volk- wein, JC (2007). Miners' Views About Personal Dust Monitors. Journal-Inter- national Society for Respiratory Protec- tion, 24(3/4), 74. • Ruff TM (2007). Recommendations for evaluating and implementing proxi- mity warning systems on surface min- ing equipment. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spo- kane Research Laboratory. • Scharf, T; Vaught, C; Kidd, P; Stein- er, L; Kowalski, K; Wiehagen, B; and Cole, H. (2001). Toward a Typology of Dynamic and Hazardous Work En- vironments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 7(7), 1827-1841. • Teizer, J; Allread, BS; Fullerton, CE; and Hinze, J (2010). Autonomous Pro-ac- tive Real-time Construction Worker and Equipment Operator Proximity Safety Alert System. Automation in Construction, 19(5), 630-640. • Törner, M and Pousette, A (2009) Safety in Construction: A comprehensive descrip- tion of the characteristics of high safe- ty standards in construction work, from the combined perspective of supervisors and experienced workers. Journal of Safety Research, 40(6), 399-409. • Vaughan, E (1993). Chronic Exposure to an Environmental Hazard: risk per- ceptions and self-protective behavior. Health Psychology, 12(1), 74.

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